TSCII-FAQ-5
Code Mapping Table TSCII <-> Unicode



Code Mapping/Correspondance between the TSCII-based tamil
characters (version 1.7) and Unicode (v 3.1) Standard

The entire tamil characters/alphabet set can be generated by combined used of one/two/three glyphs shown in the glyph encoding standard table/chart (Fig.1)
The following table has been set up using a monospaced font.
So please use such a fixed-width font for neat screen display/print
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Tamil alphabet             |  TSCII 1.7 (8-bit)  | Unicode 3.1 
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VOWELS (uyir)              |                     |
tamil uyir letter a        |     (#171)          | (U0B85) 
tamil uyir letter aa       |     (#172)          | (U0B86) 
tamil uyir letter i        |     (#254)          | (U0B87) 
tamil uyir letter ii       |     (#174)          | (U0B88)
tamil uyir letter u        |     (#175)          | (U0B89) 
tamil uyir letter uu       |     (#176)          | (U0B8A) 
tamil uyir letter e        |     (#177)          | (U0B8E) 
tamil uyir letter ee       |     (#178)          | (U0B8F) 
tamil uyir letter ai       |     (#179)          | (U0B90)
tamil uyir letter o        |     (#180)          | (U0B92) 
tamil uyir letter oo       |     (#181)          | (U0B93) 
tamil uyir letter au       |     (#182)          | (U0B94)
tamil uyir letter ak/h/q   |     (#183)          | (U0B83)


Please take note that in TSCII version 1.6 first introduced in 1998 
tamil uyir letter "i" was placed at #173. In TSCII 1.7, though this 
glyph has been kept at its slot of #173 for backward compatibility 
reasons but its usage has been deprecated.  All Tamil softwares 
need to take care of this dual presence of "i" glyph. 

CONSONANTS (mei, with pulli on top)
tamil mei letter k         |     (#236)          | (0B95)(0BCD) 
tamil mei letter ng        |     (#237)          | (0B99)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter c         |     (#238)          | (0B9A)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter nj        |     (#239)          | (0B9E)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter t/d       |     (#240)          | (0B9F)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter N         |     (#241)          | (0BA3)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter th/dh     |     (#242)          | (0BA4)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter n^        |     (#243)          | (0BA8)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter p         |     (#244)          | (0BAA)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter m         |     (#245)          | (0BAE)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter y         |     (#246)          | (0BAF)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter r         |     (#247)          | (0BBO)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter l         |     (#248)          | (0BB2)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter v         |     (#249)          | (0BB5)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter zh        |     (#250)          | (0BB4)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter L         |     (#251)          | (0BB3)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter R         |     (#252)          | (0BB1)(0BCD)
tamil mei letter n         |     (#253)          | (0BA9)(0BCD)

AKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter ka        |     (#184)           | (0B95) 
tamil mei letter nga       |     (#185)           | (0B99) 
tamil mei letter ca        |     (#186)           | (0B9A) 
tamil mei letter nya       |     (#187)           | (0B9E) 
tamil mei letter ta/da     |     (#188)           | (0B9F)  
tamil mei letter Na        |     (#189)           | (0BA3) 
tamil mei letter tha/dha   |     (#190)           | (0BA4) 
tamil mei letter n^a       |     (#191)           | (0BA8) 
tamil mei letter pa        |     (#192)           | (0BAA) 
tamil mei letter ma        |     (#193)           | (0BAE) 
tamil mei letter ya        |     (#194)           | (0BAF) 
tamil mei letter ra        |     (#195)           | (0BBO) 
tamil mei letter la        |     (#196)           | (0BB2) 
tamil mei letter va        |     (#197)           | (0BB5) 
tamil mei letter za        |     (#198)           | (0BB4) 
tamil mei letter La        |     (#199)           | (0BB3) 
tamil mei letter Ra        |     (#200)           | (0BB1) 
tamil mei letter na        |     (#201)           | (0BA9) 

AAKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kaa       |    (#184)(#161)      | (0B95)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter ngaa      |    (#185)(#161)      | (0B99)(0BBE)
tamil mei letter caa       |    (#186)(#161)      | (0B9A)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter nyaa      |    (#187)(#161)      | (0B9E)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter taa/daa   |    (#188)(#161)      | (0B9F)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter Naa       |    (#189)(#161)      | (0BA3)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter tha/dhaa  |    (#190)(#161)      | (0BA4)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter n^aa      |    (#191)(#161)      | (0BA8)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter paa       |    (#192)(#161)      | (0BAA)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter maa       |    (#193)(#161)      | (0BAE)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter yaa       |    (#194)(#161)      | (0BAF)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter raa       |    (#195)(#161)      | (0BBO)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter laa       |    (#196)(#161)      | (0BB2)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter vaa       |    (#197)(#161)      | (0BB5)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter zhaa      |    (#198)(#161)      | (0BB4)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter Laa       |    (#199)(#161)      | (0BB3)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter Raa       |    (#200)(#161)      | (0BB1)(0BBE) 
tamil mei letter naa       |    (#201)(#161)      | (0BA9)(0BBE) 

IKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter ki       |    (#184)(#162)      | (0B95)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter ngi      |    (#185)(#162)      | (0B99)(0BBF)
tamil mei letter ci       |    (#186)(#162)      | (0B9A)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter nyi      |    (#187)(#162)      | (0B9E)(0BBF)  
tamil mei letter ti/di    |    (#202)            | (0B9F)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter Ni       |    (#189)(#162)      | (0BA3)(0BBF)  
tamil mei letter thi/dhi  |    (#190)(#162)      | (0BA4)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter n^i      |    (#191)(#162)      | (0BA8)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter pi       |    (#192)(#162)      | (0BAA)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter mi       |    (#193)(#162)      | (0BAE)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter yi       |    (#194)(#162)      | (0BAF)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter ri       |    (#195)(#162)      | (0BBO)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter li       |    (#196)(#162)      | (0BB2)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter vi       |    (#197)(#162)      | (0BB5)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter zhi      |    (#198)(#162)      | (0BB4)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter Li       |    (#199)(#162)      | (0BB3)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter Ri       |    (#200)(#162)      | (0BB1)(0BBF) 
tamil mei letter ni       |    (#201)(#162)      | (0BA9)(0BBF) 

IIKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kii      |    (#184)(#163)      | (0B95)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter ngii     |    (#185)(#163)      | (0B99)(0BC0)
tamil mei letter cii      |    (#186)(#163)      | (0B9A)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter nyii     |    (#187)(#163)      | (0B9E)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter tii/dii  |    (#203)            | (0B9F)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter Nii      |    (#189)(#163)      | (0BA3)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter thii/dhii|    (#190)(#163)      | (0BA4)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter n^ii     |    (#191)(#163)      | (0BA8)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter pii      |    (#192)(#163)      | (0BAA)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter mii      |    (#193)(#163)      | (0BAE)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter yii      |    (#194)(#163)      | (0BAF)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter rii      |    (#195)(#163)      | (0BBO)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter lii      |    (#196)(#163)      | (0BB2)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter vii      |    (#197)(#163)      | (0BB5)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter zhii     |    (#198)(#163)      | (0BB4)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter Lii      |    (#199)(#163)      | (0BB3)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter Rii      |    (#200)(#163)      | (0BB1)(0BC0) 
tamil mei letter nii      |    (#201)(#163)      | (0BA9)(0BC0) 

UKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter ku       |    (#204)            | (0B95)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter ngu      |    (#153)            | (0B99)(0BC1)
tamil mei letter cu       |    (#205)            | (0B9A)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter nyu      |    (#154)            | (0B9E)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter tu/du    |    (#206)            | (0B9F)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter Nu       |    (#207)            | (0BA3)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter thu/dhu  |    (#208)            | (0BA4)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter n^u      |    (#209)            | (0BA8)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter pu       |    (#210)            | (0BAA)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter mu       |    (#211)            | (0BAE)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter yu       |    (#212)            | (0BAF)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter ru       |    (#213)            | (0BBO)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter lu       |    (#214)            | (0BB2)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter vu       |    (#215)            | (0BB5)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter zhu      |    (#216)            | (0BB4)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter Lu       |    (#217)            | (0BB3)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter Ru       |    (#218)            | (0BB1)(0BC1) 
tamil mei letter nu       |    (#219)            | (0BA9)(0BC1) 

UUKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kuu      |    (#220)            | (0B95)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter nguu     |    (#155)            | (0B99)(0BC2)
tamil mei letter cuu      |    (#221)            | (0B9A)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter nyuu     |    (#156)            | (0B9E)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter tuu/duu  |    (#222)            | (0B9F)(0BC2)
tamil mei letter Nuu      |    (#223)            | (0BA3)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter thuu/dhuu|    (#224)            | (0BA4)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter n^uu     |    (#225)            | (0BA8)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter puu      |    (#226)            | (0BAA)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter muu      |    (#227)            | (0BAE)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter yuu      |    (#228)            | (0BAF)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter ruu      |    (#229)            | (0BBO)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter luu      |    (#230)            | (0BB2)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter vuu      |    (#231)            | (0BB5)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter zhuu     |    (#232)            | (0BB4)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter Luu      |    (#233)            | (0BB3)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter Ruu      |    (#234)            | (0BB1)(0BC2) 
tamil mei letter nuu      |    (#235)            | (0BA9)(0BC2) 

EKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter ke       |    (#166)(#184)     | (0B95)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter nge      |    (#166)(#185)     | (0B99)(0BC6)
tamil mei letter ce       |    (#166)(#186)     | (0B9A)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter nye      |    (#166)(#187)     | (0B9E)(0BC6)  
tamil mei letter te/de    |    (#166)(#188)     | (0B9F)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter Ne       |    (#166)(#189)     | (0BA3)(0BC6)  
tamil mei letter the/dhe  |    (#166)(#190)     | (0BA4)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter n^e      |    (#166)(#191)     | (0BA8)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter pe       |    (#166)(#192)     | (0BAA)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter me       |    (#166)(#193)     | (0BAE)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter ye       |    (#166)(#194)     | (0BAF)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter re       |    (#166)(#195)     | (0BBO)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter le       |    (#166)(#196)     | (0BB2)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter ve       |    (#166)(#197)     | (0BB5)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter zhe      |    (#166)(#198)     | (0BB4)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter Le       |    (#166)(#199)     | (0BB3)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter Re       |    (#166)(#200)     | (0BB1)(0BC6) 
tamil mei letter ne       |    (#166)(#201)     | (0BA9)(0BC6) 

EEKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kee       |    (#167)(#184)    | (0B95)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter ngee      |    (#167)(#185)    | (0B99)(0BC7)
tamil mei letter cee       |    (#167)(#186)    | (0B9A)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter nyee      |    (#167)(#187)    | (0B9E)(0BC7)  
tamil mei letter te/dee    |    (#167)(#188)    | (0B9F)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter Nee       |    (#167)(#189)    | (0BA3)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter thee/dhee |    (#167)(#190)    | (0BA4)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter n^ee      |    (#167)(#191)    | (0BA8)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter pee       |    (#167)(#192)    | (0BAA)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter mee       |    (#167)(#193)    | (0BAE)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter yee       |    (#167)(#194)    | (0BAF)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter ree       |    (#167)(#195)    | (0BBO)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter lee       |    (#167)(#196)    | (0BB2)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter vee       |    (#167)(#197)    | (0BB5)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter zhee      |    (#167)(#198)    | (0BB4)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter Lee       |    (#167)(#199)    | (0BB3)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter Ree       |    (#167)(#200)    | (0BB1)(0BC7) 
tamil mei letter nee       |    (#167)(#201)    | (0BA9)(0BC7) 

AIKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kai       |    (#168)(#184)     | (0B95)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter ngai      |    (#168)(#185)     | (0B99)(0BC8)
tamil mei letter cai       |    (#168)(#186)     | (0B9A)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter nyai      |    (#168)(#187)     | (0B9E)(0BC8)  
tamil mei letter tai/dai   |    (#168)(#188)     | (0B9F)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter Nai       |    (#168)(#189)     | (0BA3)(0BC8)  
tamil mei letter thai/dhai |    (#168)(#190)     | (0BA4)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter n^ai      |    (#168)(#191)     | (0BA8)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter pai       |    (#168)(#192)     | (0BAA)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter mai       |    (#168)(#193)     | (0BAE)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter yai       |    (#168)(#194)     | (0BAF)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter rai       |    (#168)(#195)     | (0BBO)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter lai       |    (#168)(#196)     | (0BB2)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter vai       |    (#168)(#197)     | (0BB5)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter zhai      |    (#168)(#198)     | (0BB4)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter Lai       |    (#168)(#199)     | (0BB3)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter Rai       |    (#168)(#200)     | (0BB1)(0BC8) 
tamil mei letter nai       |    (#168)(#201)     | (0BA9)(0BC8) 

OKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter ko        |   (#166)(#184)(#161)    | (0B95)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter ngo       |   (#166)(#185)(#161)    | (0B99)(0BCA)
tamil mei letter co        |   (#166)(#186)(#161)    | (0B9A)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter nyo       |   (#166)(#187)(#161)    | (0B9E)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter to/do     |   (#166)(#188)(#161)    | (0B9F)(0BCA)  
tamil mei letter No        |   (#166)(#189)(#161)    | (0BA3)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter tho/dho   |   (#166)(#190)(#161)    | (0BA4)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter n^o       |   (#166)(#191)(#161)    | (0BA8)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter po        |   (#166)(#192)(#161)    | (0BAA)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter mo        |   (#166)(#193)(#161)    | (0BAE)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter yo        |   (#166)(#194)(#161)    | (0BAF)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter ro        |   (#166)(#195)(#161)    | (0BBO)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter lo        |   (#166)(#196)(#161)    | (0BB2)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter vo        |   (#166)(#197)(#161)    | (0BB5)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter zo        |   (#166)(#198)(#161)    | (0BB4)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter Lo        |   (#166)(#199)(#161)    | (0BB3)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter Ro        |   (#166)(#200)(#161)    | (0BB1)(0BCA) 
tamil mei letter no        |   (#166)(#201)(#161)    | (0BA9)(0BCA) 

OOKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter koo       |   (#167)(#184)(#161)    | (0B95)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter ngoo      |   (#167)(#185)(#161)    | (0B99)(0BCB)
tamil mei letter coo       |   (#167)(#186)(#161)    | (0B9A)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter nyoo      |   (#167)(#187)(#161)    | (0B9E)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter to/doo    |   (#167)(#188)(#161)    | (0B9F)(0BCB)  
tamil mei letter Noo       |   (#167)(#189)(#161)    | (0BA3)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter thoo/dhoo |   (#167)(#190)(#161)    | (0BA4)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter n^oo      |   (#167)(#191)(#161)    | (0BA8)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter poo       |   (#167)(#192)(#161)    | (0BAA)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter moo       |   (#167)(#193)(#161)    | (0BAE)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter yoo       |   (#167)(#194)(#161)    | (0BAF)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter roo       |   (#167)(#195)(#161)    | (0BBO)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter loo       |   (#167)(#196)(#161)    | (0BB2)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter voo       |   (#167)(#197)(#161)    | (0BB5)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter zoo       |   (#167)(#198)(#161)    | (0BB4)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter Loo       |   (#167)(#199)(#161)    | (0BB3)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter Roo       |   (#167)(#200)(#161)    | (0BB1)(0BCB) 
tamil mei letter noo       |   (#167)(#201)(#161)    | (0BA9)(0BCB) 

AUKARA VARISAI
tamil mei letter kau       |   (#167)(#184)(#170)    | (0B95)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter ngau      |   (#167)(#185)(#170)    | (0B99)(0BCC)
tamil mei letter cau       |   (#167)(#186)(#170)    | (0B9A)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter nyau      |   (#167)(#187)(#170)    | (0B9E)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter tau/dau   |   (#167)(#188)(#170)    | (0B9F)(0BCC)  
tamil mei letter Nau       |   (#167)(#189)(#170)    | (0BA3)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter thau/dhau |   (#167)(#190)(#170)    | (0BA4)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter n^au      |   (#167)(#191)(#170)    | (0BA8)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter pau       |   (#167)(#192)(#170)    | (0BAA)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter mau       |   (#167)(#193)(#170)    | (0BAE)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter yau       |   (#167)(#194)(#170)    | (0BAF)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter rau       |   (#167)(#195)(#170)    | (0BBO)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter lau       |   (#167)(#196)(#170)    | (0BB2)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter vau       |   (#167)(#197)(#170)    | (0BB5)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter zau       |   (#167)(#198)(#170)    | (0BB4)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter Lau       |   (#167)(#199)(#170)    | (0BB3)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter Rau       |   (#167)(#200)(#170)    | (0BB1)(0BCC) 
tamil mei letter nau       |   (#167)(#201)(#170)    | (0BA9)(0BCC)

TAMIL NUMERALS
tamil numeral zero         |    (#128)               |   - 
tamil numeral one          |    (#129)               | (0BE7)  
tamil numeral two          |    (#141)               | (0BE8)  
tamil numeral three        |    (#142)               | (0BE9)   
tamil numeral four         |    (#143)               | (0BEA)   
tamil numeral five         |    (#144)               | (0BEB)  
tamil numeral six          |    (#149)               | (0BEC)   
tamil numeral seven        |    (#150)               | (0BED)   
tamil numeral eight        |    (#151)               | (0BEE)   
tamil numeral nine         |    (#152)               | (0BEF)   
tamil numeral ten          |    (#157)               | (0BF0) 
tamil numeral one hundred  |    (#158)               | (0BF1)    
tamil numeral one thousand |    (#159)               | (0BF2)   

GRANTHA CONSONANTS (mei, with pulli on top)
grantha letter j           |    (#136)               | (0B9C)(0BCD)
grantha letter sh          |    (#137)               | (0BB7)(0BCD)
grantha letter s           |    (#138)               | (0BB8)(0BCD)
grantha letter h           |    (#139)               | (0BB9)(0BCD)

GRANTHA AKARA MEY VARISAI
grantha letter ja          |    (#131)               | (0B9C)
grantha letter sha         |    (#132)               | (0BB7)
grantha letter sa          |    (#133)               | (0BB8)
grantha letter ha          |    (#134)               | (0BB9)

GRANTHA UKARA MEY VARISAI
grantha letter ju          |    (#131)(#164)         | (0B9C)(0BC1)
grantha letter shu         |    (#132)(#164)         | (0BB7)(0BC1)
grantha letter su          |    (#138)(#164)         | (0BB8)(0BC1)
grantha letter hu          |    (#139)(#164)         | (0BB9)(0BC1)

GRANTHA UUKAARA MEY VARISAI
grantha letter juu         |    (#131)(#165)         | (0B9C)(0BC2)
grantha letter shuu        |    (#132)(#165)         | (0BB7)(0BC2)
grantha letter suu         |    (#138)(#165)         | (0BB8)(0BC2)
grantha letter huu         |    (#139)(#165)         | (0BB9)(0BC2)

CONJUNCT CONSONANTS
grantha letter ksha        |    (#140)               | (0B95)(0BCD)(0BB7)
grantha letter sri         |    (#130)               | (0BB8)(0BB0)(0BC0)

SPECIAL CHARACTERS
copyright sign             |    (#169)               | (00A9)

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This file was first put up on 17 Nov 1997 and last revised on 3 April 2002.
Original author is K.Kalyanasundaram.
Revised by Thuraiappah Vaseeharan.